As a general rule, the committee's work concerns either bills for which there is an obligation to involve the Bundesrat in drawing up the legislation or ordinances (implementing legislation) that require the Bundesrat's consent. Some examples include:
- the bills on NATO enlargement,
- bills relating to the legal position of soldiers,
- bills on military service and
- military disciplinary law.
The members of the Committee on Defence are traditionally usually the heads of government in the federal states. For that reason it is described as a "political committee", as is the Committee on Foreign Affairs.
Like the latter committee, the Committee on Defence does not meet on a regular basis but is instead convened solely if there is a need for discussion.